### MDL-21695 question: replaced help files with new help strings

```AMOS BEGIN
HLP question/categoryparent.html,[parentcategory_help,core_question]
HLP question/categories.html,[editcategories_help,core_question]
HLP quiz/export.html,[exportquestions_help,core_question]
HLP quiz/exportcategory.html,[exportcategory_help,core_question]
HLP quiz/exportcategory.html,[exportcategory_help,core_question]
HLP quiz/importcategory.html,[importcategory_help,core_question]
HLP quiz/quiz/stoponerror.html,[stoponerror_help,core_question]
HLP quiz/matchshuffle.html,[shuffle_help,qtype_match]
HLP quiz/generalfeedback.html,[generalfeedback_help,mod_quiz]
AMOS END```
parent 59c9d381


Calculated questions

Calculated questions offers a way to create individual numerical question by the use of wildcards that are substituted with individual values when the quiz is taken.
Below is a shrunken view of the main editing page with some example inputs:

Question:
Image to display:
Tolerance: ±
Tolerance Type:
Significant Figures:

In the question text input and "Correct Answer Formula" {a} and {b} can be seen. These and any other {name} can be used as a wildcard that is substituted by some value when the quiz is taken. Also, the correct answer is calculated when the quiz is submitted using the expression in "Correct Answer Formula", which is calculated as a numerical expression after the substitution of the wildcards. The possible wildcard values are set or generated on a later page in "editing wizard" for calculated questions...

The example formula uses the operator +. Other accepted operators are -*/ and % where % is the modulo operator. It is also possible to use some PHP-style mathematical function. Among these there are 24 single-argument function:
abs, acos, acosh, asin, asinh, atan, atanh, ceil, cos, cosh, deg2rad, exp, expm1, floor, log, log10, log1p, rad2deg, round, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh
and two two-argument functions
atan2, pow
and the functions min and max that can take two or more arguments. It is also possible to use the function pi that takes no arguments but do not forget the use the parentheses - the correct usage is pi(). Similarly the other function must have their argument(s) within parentheses. Possible usage is for example sin({a}) + cos({b}) * 2. It should not be any problem to wrap functions within each other like cos(deg2rad({a} + 90)) etc.
More details on how to use these PHP-style functions can be found in the documentation at the PHP web site

As for numerical questions it is possible to allow a margin within which all responses are accepted as correct. The "Tolerance" field is used for this. However, there are three different types of tolerances. These are Relative, Nominal and Geometric. If we say that the correct answer at quiz time is calculated to 200 and the tolerance is set to 0.5 then the different tolerance types work like this:

Relative: A tolerance interval is calculated by multiplying the correct answer with 0.5, ie in this case we get 100 so for this tolerance the correct response must be between 100 and 300. (200 ± 100)
This is useful if the magnitude of the correct answer can differ greatly between different wildcard values.

Nominal: This is the simplest tolerance type but not very powerful. The correct response must be between 199.5 and 200.5 (200 ± 0.5)
This tolerance type can be useful if the differences between different correct answers are small.

Geometric: The upper limit of the tolerance interval is calculated as 200 + 0.5*200 and is the same as for the relative case. The lower limit is calculated as 200/(1 + 0.5). The correct response must then be between 133.33 and 300.
This is useful for complex calculation that must have great tolerances where relative tolerances of 1 or more would be used for the upper limit but clearly not acceptable for the lower limit as it would make zero a correct answer for all cases.

The field Significant Figures does only relate to how the correct answer should be presented in the review or the reports. Examples: If it is set to 3 then the correct answer 13.333 would be presented as 13.3; 1236 would be presented as 1240; 23 would be presented as 23.0 etc.

The feedback field and the optional unit fields work just like they do for numerical questions.

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Simple Calculated questions

Simple Calculated questions which are a simplified version of calculated questions, offers a way to create individual numerical question by the use of wildcards that are substituted with individual values when the quiz is taken.
Below is a shrunken view of the main editing page with some example inputs:

Question:
Image to display:
Tolerance: ±
Tolerance Type:
Significant Figures:

In the question text input and "Correct Answer Formula" {a} and {b} can be seen. Only those in "Correct Answer Formula" can be used as a wildcard that is substituted by some value when the quiz is taken. Also, the correct answer is calculated when the quiz is submitted using the expression in "Correct Answer Formula", which is calculated as a numerical expression after the substitution of the wildcards. The example formula uses the operator +. Other accepted operators are -*/ and % where % is the modulo operator. It is also possible to use some PHP-style mathematical function. Among these there are 24 single-argument function:
abs, acos, acosh, asin, asinh, atan, atanh, ceil, cos, cosh, deg2rad, exp, expm1, floor, log, log10, log1p, rad2deg, round, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh
and two two-argument functions
atan2, pow
and the functions min and max that can take two or more arguments. It is also possible to use the function pi that takes no arguments but do not forget the use the parentheses - the correct usage is pi(). Similarly the other function must have their argument(s) within parentheses. Possible usage is for example sin({a}) + cos({b}) * 2. It should not be any problem to wrap functions within each other like cos(deg2rad({a} + 90)) etc.
More details on how to use these PHP-style functions can be found in the documentation at the PHP web site

As for numerical questions it is possible to allow a margin within which all responses are accepted as correct. The "Tolerance" field is used for this. However, there are three different types of tolerances. These are Relative, Nominal and Geometric. If we say that the correct answer at quiz time is calculated to 200 and the tolerance is set to 0.5 then the different tolerance types work like this:

Relative: A tolerance interval is calculated by multiplying the correct answer with 0.5, ie in this case we get 100 so for this tolerance the correct response must be between 100 and 300. (200 ± 100)
This is useful if the magnitude of the correct answer can differ greatly between different wildcard values.

Nominal: This is the simplest tolerance type but not very powerful. The correct response must be between 199.5 and 200.5 (200 ± 0.5)
This tolerance type can be useful if the differences between different correct answers are small.

The field Significant Figures does only relate to how the correct answer should be presented in the review or the reports. Examples: If it is set to 3 then the correct answer 13.333 would be presented as 13.3; 1236 would be presented as 1240; 23 would be presented as 23.0 etc.

The feedback field and the optional unit fields work just like they do for numerical questions.

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Description

This type of question is not really a question.

All it does is print some text without requiring any answers.

It can be used to print a descriptive text to be used by a following group of questions.

The General feedback can be used if you have some text that you want to appear on the review page only. The 'Question text' appears both during the attempt and on the review page.

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Essay questions

In response to a question (that may include an image) the respondent writes an answer in essay format. Three fields may be edited when creating the essay question: the question title, the body of the question, and feedback that can be displayed at a time chosen by the facilitator.

The essay question will not be assigned a grade until it has been reviewed by a teacher question, the grader will be able to enter a custom comment in response the respondent's essay and be able to assign a score for the essay.

Normally, the student can type their answer using the rich-text editor. However, if there is more than one essay question on a page, the rich-text editor is only used for the first essay question.

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Matching questions

After an optional introduction, the respondent is presented with several sub-questions and several jumbled answers. There is one correct answer for each question.

The respondent must select an answer to match each sub-question.

Each sub-question is equally weighted to contribute towards the grade for the total question.



This very flexible question type is similar to a popular format known as the Cloze format.

Questions consist of a passage of text (in Moodle format) that has various sub-questions embedded within it, including

• numerical answers (NUMERICAL or NM),
• multiple choice (MULTICHOICE or MC), represented as a dropdown menu in-line in the text
• multiple choice (MULTICHOICE_V or MCV), represented a vertical column of radio buttons, or
• multiple choice (MULTICHOICE_H or MCH), represented as a horizontal row of radio-buttons.

There is currently no graphical interface to create these questions - you need to specify the question format using the text box or by importing them from external files.

Here is an example of the input text used to specify such a question:

Note that for multiple choice vertical or horizontal rendering there is no automatic numbering. It can added at each answer as shown here.

This example will appear to students as follows:

Question 1
Marks: --/13.00
.

The multichoice question can also be shown in the vertical display of the standard moodle multiple choice

Or in an horizontal display that is included here in a table

A shortanswer question where case must match. Write moodle in upper case letters

Note that addresses like www.moodle.org and smileys all work as normal:
a) How good is this?

Good luck!


Multiple Choice questions

In response to a question (that may include a image) the respondent chooses from multiple answers. There are two types of multiple choice questions - single answer and multiple answer.

Single-answer questions allow one and only one answer to be chosen. Generally all the grades for such a question should be positive.

Multiple-answer questions allow one or more answers to be chosen - each answer may carry a positive or negative grade, so that choosing ALL the options will not necessarily result in good grade. If the total grade is negative then the total grade for this question will be zero. Note that in a multiple-answer question, the grades must add up to 100%.

Finally, each answer (right or wrong) should include feedback - this feedback will be shown to the respondent next to each of their answers (if the quiz itself is configured to show feedback).



If you set this option to "Yes", then the order of the answers is randomly shuffled each time a student starts an attempt at a quiz containing this question - provided that "Shuffle within questions" in the Quiz settings is set to "Yes".

The intention is simply to make it a little harder for students to copy from each other.

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Numerical questions

From the student perspective, a numerical question looks just like a short-answer question.

The difference is that numerical answers are allowed to have an accepted error. This allows a continuous range of answers to be set. For example, if the answer is 30 with an accepted error of 5, then any number between 25 and 35 will be accepted as correct.

Like with short answer questions, different answers, or the same answer with different precisions can be given. In this case, the first matching answer is used to determine the score and the feedback.

To provide feedback for responses that do not match any of the answers you entered, provide some feedback with a '*' in the answer box.

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After an optional introduction, the respondent is presented with several sub-questions and several jumbled answers. There is one correct answer for each question.

The respondent must select an answer to match each sub-question.

Each sub-question is equally weighted to contribute towards the grade for the total question.

The questions and answers are randomly drawn from the pool of "Short Answer" questions in the current category. Each attempt on a quiz may therefore have different questions and answers. You must make sure that the category contains enough unused short-answer questions, otherwise the student will be shown a friendly error message. The more short-answer questions you provide the more likely it is that students will see a new selection on each attempt.



In response to a question (that may include a image) the respondent types a word or short phrase.

There may be several possible correct answers, each with a different grade. If the "Case sensitive" option is selected, then you can have different scores for "Word" or "word".

You can use the asterisk character (*) as a wildcard to match any series of characters. For example, use ran*ing to match any word or phrase starting with "ran" and ending with "ing". If you really do want to match an asterisk then use a backslash like this: \*

Without wildcards the answers are compared exactly, so be careful with your spelling!



True/False questions

In response to a question (that may include a image) the respondent chooses from True or False.

If feedback is enabled, then the appropriate feedback message is shown to the respondent after answering the quiz. For example, if the correct answer is "False", but they answer "True" (getting it wrong) then the "True" feedback is shown.



Question categories

Rather than keeping all your questions in one big list, you can create categories to keep them in.

Categories can be created or deleted at will. But:

• There must be at least one category in each context. So you cannot delete the last category in a context.
• When you try to delete a category containing questions, then you will be asked to specify another category to move them to.

You can arrange your categories in a hierarchy so that they are easier to manage. Editing categories is done under the 'Categories' tab in the question bank.

• On the main page under the 'Categories' tab in the question bank :
• the up and down arrow keys change the order in which categories which are peers of each other are listed.
• Under the 'Categories' tab in the question bank, you can also move a category to a new context with the up / down arrows.
• The left and right arrows are used to change the parent category of a category.
• A possibly quicker way to move categories is to click on the edit icon in the 'Categories' tab in the question bank and then use the category select box to select a new parent category.

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Question Category Contexts

Question categories are separated into different contexts from Moodle 1.9. Each different context has a separate question category hierarchy. Question category contexts are :

• Activity context : questions only available to one activity module.
• Course context : questions available to all activity modules in a course and within the course from the 'Questions' link in the course administration block.
• Course category contexts : questions available to all activity modules and courses in the course category (remember one course category can contain other course categories, you can share your questions in any or all of the parent course categories).
• Core System context : questions available in all courses and activities on your site.

You will not be able to see / use the contexts from categories above course level unless your site admin has given you permission to do so.

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Parent

The category in which this one will be placed. 'Top' means that this category is not contained in any other category.

Normally you will see several category 'contexts' which you will see in bold type, notice that each context contains it's own category hierarchy. See below for more info on contexts. If you do not see several contexts then it may be because you do not have permission to access other contexts.

If there is only one category in a context, you will not be able to move the category as there must be at least one category in each context.

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Question permissions

By default a course teacher does not have permission to do anything with questions shared in areas outside the course in which they are assigned a teacher role. So if you are a teacher and your site admin has not assigned you permission to share or use questions shared in levels above the course level you will not see questions categories above the course level.

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Creating a new question

You can create questions of various different types:



You may want to download the data displayed in the on-screen table for further analysis. You can choose between three file formats for downloaded data.
In each case data will be presented as a table with appropriate titles, as on the screen. If the table is paged, all data for all pages will be downloaded in a single file.

You will get an .xls spreadsheet document.

OpenOffice Writer format:

The data will we presented within a table in an OpenOffice .sxw text document.
This format will be available only if you have installed the PHPWriter library in the /moodle/lib subdirectory.

Text format

In this case, data will be stored as a regular text file. A line for each row in the table with data separated by tabstops.



Analysis Options

You can determine which quiz attempts are included in the analysis by setting the following parameters:

Attempt selection:

It may be convenient to analyze just one quiz attempt for each user. This particular attempt may be the one with the highest overall score, the first attempt or the last attempt of those performed. Alternatively all attempts data may be combined for a cumulative analysis.

Rejection of low scores:

Sometimes users are just browsing the quiz, exploring it, and not going through it for a grade. It is common that such 'trial' attempts get very low scores. These attempts can be excluded from analysis by setting a low limit for the score of the attempts to analyze. This limit is specified as a percentage (0-100) of the maximum grade achievable in the quiz.

Page size:

You choose how many questions per page you want to see displayed on screen.



Calculated questions

Calculated questions offers a way to create individual numerical question by the use of wildcards that are substituted with individual values when the quiz is taken.
Below is a shrunken view of the main editing page with some example inputs:

Question:
Image to display: